[AMRadio] plate modulating an 809 experiments and numbers |
Patrick Jankowiak
recycler at swbell.net
Thu Jul 8 00:21:42 EDT 2004
I had this e-mail conversation with a friend about plate modulating an 809 tube. It sort of turned from trying to find out why some fuses blew, to trying to determine the easiest way to match the 809 to a despicable 60W solid state amp for plate modulation. I thought it might be of interest, especially the calculatons show how to match a 70V line output of an amplifier to a variety of load resistances based on 'book' operating conditions for the 809. Finally, a novel method of continuously variable impedance matching is described. names witheld to protect the guilty. > Pat, > > Hope you had a good holiday weekend, and managed to stay out of the > heat... > > I managed to get some time to experiment and try to cheat the gods of AM, > but I think they forgave just this one time.. > > I took another power transformer that was 120V to 1200V and hooked the > primary to the 70 volt line of my despicable sand state audio amp. The > 1200V secondary was put in series with the plate supply of the 809, > which runs 750 volts at 70 ma.. > > The modulated waveform was looking good, plenty of up and down modulation. > Suddenly, on a voice peak, the RF went dead.. Both the primary AC line > fuse and the secondary rectifiers-return--to-ground fuse (3 amp and 1 amp > respectively) had vaporized.. > > Never heard any arcing in the transmitter part.. Replaced the fuses and all > was well again.. Played a bit more, but with less audio and looks like > nothing > fried, but I'm wondering what happened... Only thing I can think of is that > the audio peaks, added to the transformer voltage exceeded the diode string > PIV maybe ?? Do I actually need 6 X PIV rectifiers in a plate modulated > supply ?? ( I've got 3 X PIV now..) > > Anyhow, I think the 809 power supply needs some work / revision to stand > up to plate modulation.. Any opinions ?? Hmm. possibly a flashover in the rectifier during a negative modulation peak, or a flash to ground (or primary) in the transformer? If PIV is exceeded, it usually damages the rectifiers. Maybe put a string of 4-5 rectifiers in series with the B+ to the mod xfmr to help keep negative peaks (negative at the tube, positive at the B+ HV) rectifier from over-volting the B+ rectifiers. Could have been also a capacitor arc. what's the cap. volt rating in the power supply? Try putting a power resistor (same value as 809's impedance) in place of the transmitter, and use a 10:1 divider to measure the audio on the scope, see how much voltage you are getting. Should be 1500V peak to peak, so you get 0 to +1500 at the tube. If you grossly exceed it on a peak, maybe something's flashing over. A transient in he amp could cause an inductive kick, especially when the mod. peak goes negative and there is little plate current. Also, the transformer was designed for 600-0-600, so putting the CT at +750 could make a flashover hazard to GND or the primary. What is the audio amp rated, was it 60 watts? Using the 70V output on the amp, 60W/70V=0.86A through 81.4 ohms. so the amp's output there at the 70V terminals is 80 ohms. Hmm.. You know, the 8K CT to 2800 ohm 120W modulation xfmr we thought about using, would stand the voltage well. Let's look at the RCA tube manual TT-3. (use fixed width font to display such as courier new) ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]] 809 plate modulated class B amp. parameter_____________________1_________2__units plate______________________500.0_____750.0 V bias________________________-5.0_____-10.0 V peak RF grid volts__________35.0______40.0 V DC plate current____________50.0______50.0 mA DC grid current______________6.0_______5.0 mA drive wattage________________1.4_______1.5 watts power out (carrier)__________7.5______12.5 watts ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]] 809 plate modulated class C amp. parameter_____________________3_________4__units plate______________________500.0_____600.0 V bias______________________-160.0____-160.0 V peak RF grid volts_________250.0_____250.0 V DC plate current____________83.0______83.0 mA DC grid current_____________32.0______32.0 mA grid resistor_____________5000.0____5000.0 ohms drive wattage________________7.2_______7.2 watts power out (carrier)_________30.0______38.0 watts note this is a grid leak circuit, therefore the 5K resistor. Otherwise you use bias of the value shown. ]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]]] so.. modulator load impedance for the operating parameters: 1----10,000 ohms 2----15,000 ohms 3-----6,024 ohms 4-----7,228 ohms the 80 ohm output of the modulator, transformed through a 120V to 1200V transformer, is 8000 ohms: voltage ratio________________1200/120=10 impedance ratio______________10*10=100 transformation of 80 ohms____80*100=8000 pretty close. possibly two xfmrs could be used, to end up with a high voltage rated MOD xfmr at the tube end. Using the available 2800 ohm to 8K ohm transformer, you would need to step up 80 ohms to 2800 ohms. impedance ratio_____2800/80 =35 voltage ratio_______SQRT 35 =5.916 power transformer of 120V, 120*5.916=709V: 709V sec. would be 2800 ohms, if the pri. were 80 ohms. To crosscheck: 60 watts/2800 ohms= 0.0214 (I squared). I= SQRT 0.0214 = 0.14638A 2800 ohms * 0.14638A = 409.87V Since we are using 70V and not 120V, the secondary of the intermediate transformer would be (70/120)*709V, =.5833*709V, =413.6V (close enough to 409.87V considering not using consistent decimal places.) So, this is a possible solution, if the power transformer you are using is arcing over. Taking the need to match the parameter list for the tube operating conditions shown in the TT-3 manual, 1----10,000 ohms 2----15,000 ohms 3-----6,024 ohms 4-----7,228 ohms and using the said actual 2.8K-8K modulation transformer with an impedance ratio of 1:2.857, the intermediate (power) transformer impedance ratios would be: parameter_____pri / sec_______pri / sec ______________Z mod XFMR______Z pwr xfmr 1:____________3500/10000______80 / 3500 2:____________5250/15000______80 / 5250 3:____________2108 /6024______80 / 2108 4:____________2529 /7228______80 / 2529 Taking the Z ratio, and doing a SQRT on it gives the voltage ratio. The power transformer voltages to match the 80 ohm modulator to the modulated load, through a modulation transformer having a 1:2.857 impedance ratio would be: parameter__pri / sec___________pri / sec ___________Z ratio____SQRT_____Volts 1:_________.02285_____.1512____120 / 793V 2:_________.01524_____.1234____120 / 972V 3:_________.03795_____.1948____120 / 616V 4:_________.03163_____.1778____120 / 675V This is all speculation. A fun exercise. I don't remember how big that audio amp was, but if it is a 60W amp and you use the 70V terminals, here be the numerals. All just in case the plate transformer you are using is flashing over.. Now, here is a fine and mostly unknown trick to adjusting modulation transformation impedances with the twist of a dial: Use a 120V variac rated 3A with the modulator's 70V, 100V, or 120V audio outputs (many amps have such outputs available), and there you have a good autotransformer which can be adjusted to match almost any impedance which is -lower- than the output impedance of the modulator. The tap feeds the modulation transformer's 120V primary. So, if you make your low Z limit to be at the halfway point on the variac (using all these wild calculations for voltage and Z ratios etc), your high Z limit will be 4 times the low Z setting, since the variac output voltage will be 100% instead of 50%. I have used this method before in public address situations and it does work very well provided the variac is oversized by 2-3 times the audio power level. Who needs fixed taps? With this lash up, feeding the amp through the variac to a 120-to-1200V power transformer, then feeding the 1200V side to the 2800 ohm winding of the 2800-to-8K modulation transformer, you match perfectly at some point between and 51% and 81% on the variac dial, for each of the 809 conditions from the TT-3 manual. P___Z____%variac 1: 10K 66% 2: 15K 81% 3: 6K 51% 4: 7.2K 56% X: ~24K 100% Well, have good modulation scheme thoughts.. I have TXSG duty this weekend.
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