From tobiebw2 at newmexico.com Sun Nov 1 08:45:41 2015 From: tobiebw2 at newmexico.com (Steve Wender) Date: Sun, 1 Nov 2015 06:45:41 -0700 Subject: [AMRadio] Band switch for HQ-100A Message-ID: <56361785.6070108@newmexico.com> Hi all, I am trying to restore a Hammarlund HQ-100A receiver and need a wafer for the band switch. Does anyone have a wafer they are willing to sell me? Does anyone have an idea where I can get one? Thanks, Steve KC5WN From jcandela at prodigy.net Sun Nov 1 21:53:13 2015 From: jcandela at prodigy.net (Jim Candela) Date: Mon, 2 Nov 2015 02:53:13 +0000 (UTC) Subject: [AMRadio] Vertical antennas In-Reply-To: <004c01d11435$2a800430$7f800c90$@charter.net> References: <004c01d11435$2a800430$7f800c90$@charter.net> Message-ID: <1701996625.615649.1446432793778.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> Here is something that seems to work, and does not take a lot of space or a lot of investment: http://www.eham.net/articles/34659 I suppose a good "text book" vertical would outperform this one so long as directivity was not necessary. JimWd5JKO On Saturday, October 31, 2015 6:37 PM, Donald Chester wrote: > A ground mounted vertical uses buried radials.? Is the primary function to provide some sort of reflecting effect or a low >? resistance counterpoise to the driven element? The radials can be laid on the surface; they don't have to be buried.? The only reason to bury them is to physically protect them from surface traffic like human and animal feet and lawn mowers. You can think of radials from two perspectives; take your pick. (1) The radials provide a low resistance return path for ground currents, compared to bare earth, thus reducing ground losses.? (2) The radial ground plane acts as a shield between the radiating vertical element and the lossy earth, thus reducing ground losses. Another perspective is that the ground plane acts as a reflective mirror, providing a virtual image of the missing? half of the 180 degree resonant antenna you have with a quarter wave monopole. > What happens when it rains? Ground losses may decrease, particularly if the radial system is marginal.? The more radials and the more optimum their length, the less factors like ground moisture will affect antenna performance. > In either case, why specify the length of a radial if it cannot function in a resonant manner being bare wire and buried with >? whatever? The ground-mounted or buried radial doesn't have to be resonant length.? Up to a point of diminishing returns, the longer each radial, the better.? But it's more complicated than that.? For a given limited amount of wire, it's better to lay down a large number of short radials than a small number of long ones.? The more? radials, the more making each one longer improves antenna performance. IOW,? the more radials you lay down, the longer you want each one to be.? With only a few radials, making each one more than a small fraction of a wavelength long, would make little difference in their effectiveness . Better to use the extra wire to make a few more short radials. > How predictable is the radiation resistance of buried wire? The buried wire has no radiation resistance since it does not radiate. > What losses exist in the radials? Very little loss in the radial wires themselves. But the fewer the radials, the more the ground loss? from the bare earth adjacent to the radial wires. > If it?s to provide a counterpoise, why not use a tuned artificial ground i.e. series resonant shunt to a good ground? The ground system is more than just a counterpoise to make the vertical conductor self-resonant.? For example, with AM broadcast verticals, even when the vertical tower is a self-resonant 180 degrees (half wavelength) tall, mounted on an insulator, an extensive ground radial system is deployed. If the resonant conductor were sufficient and the ground radials not necessary, given the cost of copper and real estate, why? wouldn't a half wavelength base-insulated vertical tower with no ground radials be the standard broadcast antenna? The proximity of the bottom end of the ground-mounted half wave tower to the earth, with no radial system, would induce significant loss. Don k4kyv --- This email has been checked for viruses by Avast antivirus software. https://www.avast.com/antivirus ______________________________________________________________ Our Main Website: http://www.amfone.net AMRadio mailing list Archives: http://mailman.qth.net/pipermail/amradio/ List Rules (must read!): http://w5ami.net/amradiofaq.html List Home: http://mailman.qth.net/mailman/listinfo/amradio Post: AMRadio at mailman.qth.net To unsubscribe, send an email to amradio-request at mailman.qth.net with the word unsubscribe in the message body. This list hosted by: http://www.qsl.net Please help support this email list: http://www.qsl.net/donate.html Message delivered to jcandela at prodigy.net From k4kyv at charter.net Mon Nov 2 14:15:01 2015 From: k4kyv at charter.net (Donald Chester) Date: Mon, 2 Nov 2015 13:15:01 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Vertical antennas In-Reply-To: References: <000901d1135e$5a6ef610$0f4ce230$@charter.net> <000f01d1135f$ebd32800$c3797800$@verizon.net> <7235EC4950B54232A188456624B95A5F@LILESJLAPTOP> <004c01d11435$2a800430$7f800c90$@charter.net> Message-ID: <000001d115a2$c5f24810$51d6d830$@charter.net> From: Jim Isbell, W5JAI [mailto:jim.isbell at gmail.com] > OK, I will throw a monkey wrench in the works. > I have just put a new metal roof on my house, 30x70...approx.... > I want to put a longwire along the ridge. How high above the roof, how long, do I connect the roof > to the ground or just let it float? If you think the sheets in the metal roof make good electrical contact with each other, that should make an excellent ground plane in itself. I don?t think you need to worry about running a ground connection to the earth from the roof. In fact, it might even hurt the effectiveness; I read somewhere that running an earth ground to an elevated radial system may reduce the efficiency of the antenna. --- This email has been checked for viruses by Avast antivirus software. https://www.avast.com/antivirus From mjcal77 at yahoo.com Thu Nov 5 08:27:40 2015 From: mjcal77 at yahoo.com (CL in NC) Date: Thu, 5 Nov 2015 13:27:40 +0000 (UTC) Subject: [AMRadio] For your amusement References: <1991673343.270116.1446730060279.JavaMail.yahoo.ref@mail.yahoo.com> Message-ID: <1991673343.270116.1446730060279.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> Is this how Ebay and others get around the law? Check out this Epay item # 272031218021. Be sure to read the very official highlighted disclaimer on the bottom. Guessing that is the magic legal release. Charlie W4MEC in NC From mjcal77 at yahoo.com Thu Nov 5 09:06:36 2015 From: mjcal77 at yahoo.com (CL in NC) Date: Thu, 5 Nov 2015 14:06:36 +0000 (UTC) Subject: [AMRadio] For your amusement directions References: <525195884.261553.1446732396131.JavaMail.yahoo.ref@mail.yahoo.com> Message-ID: <525195884.261553.1446732396131.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> Seems to be some confusion, that number is not a link. Copy the number, go to Ebay and paste it in the search box and click search. de W4MEC From wa1rkt at comcast.net Thu Nov 5 09:15:38 2015 From: wa1rkt at comcast.net (Rick Poole) Date: Thu, 05 Nov 2015 09:15:38 -0500 Subject: [AMRadio] For your amusement In-Reply-To: <1991673343.270116.1446730060279.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo. com> References: <1991673343.270116.1446730060279.JavaMail.yahoo.ref@mail.yahoo.com> <1991673343.270116.1446730060279.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> Message-ID: <20151105141529.858CF1E155B@www3.rkt-tech.com> At 08:27 AM 11/5/2015, CL in NC via AMRadio wrote: >Is this how Ebay and others get around the law? Check out this Epay >item # 272031218021. Be sure to read the very official highlighted >disclaimer on the bottom. Guessing that is the magic legal release. Oh, wow. "Medical" use? I'd bet the FDA would love to speak with this person about that! From k4kyv at charter.net Thu Nov 5 18:30:41 2015 From: k4kyv at charter.net (Donald Chester) Date: Thu, 5 Nov 2015 17:30:41 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] For your amusement Message-ID: <000101d11821$fc3bcd20$f4b36760$@charter.net> "It is a violation of US FCC regulations to operate these units on the Citizens Band or Amateur Radio Services in the United States." Not true. There is no prohibition on the type of equipment legal for use on the ham bands, as long as FCC regs including technical standards, licence class, bands and sub-bands are observed. If one could get spurious emissions down to specs, that piece of crap would be perfectly legal, although I couldn't imagine any legitimate ham in his right mind paying $500 for it. Don k4kyv --- This email has been checked for viruses by Avast antivirus software. https://www.avast.com/antivirus From jc at pctechref.com Fri Nov 6 11:10:48 2015 From: jc at pctechref.com (John Coleman) Date: Fri, 6 Nov 2015 10:10:48 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Vertical antennas In-Reply-To: <000901d1135e$5a6ef610$0f4ce230$@charter.net> References: <000901d1135e$5a6ef610$0f4ce230$@charter.net> Message-ID: <007301d118ad$b33fd990$19bf8cb0$@pctechref.com> I haven't seen any post about an end fed zep vertical. I recall that Don, K4KYV, used an end fed wire while he was in Houston and it worked quite well. I see no reason the same thing couldn't be done verticaly. as a matter of fact I have used a vertical 40 meter J-POLE (but just made of wire and supported by ballons) at a field day a long time ago. It was wonderful. I may be mistaken here but I think many AM broadcast station use insulated half wave verticals and with a tuner at the base to provide voltage feed instead of current feed. Of course an 80 mtr version may not be feesable but a 40 mtr version whoould work for a lot of folks. John, WA5BXO From jim.isbell at gmail.com Fri Nov 6 11:24:44 2015 From: jim.isbell at gmail.com (Jim Isbell, W5JAI) Date: Fri, 6 Nov 2015 10:24:44 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Vertical antennas In-Reply-To: <007301d118ad$b33fd990$19bf8cb0$@pctechref.com> References: <000901d1135e$5a6ef610$0f4ce230$@charter.net> <007301d118ad$b33fd990$19bf8cb0$@pctechref.com> Message-ID: On the subject of Verticals, I have just completed a new "tin" roof on my house. About 3000 sq feet of ground plane...... I am wanting to operate 0n 20 and 40 meters. I have two towers, one on either end of the ridge pole and about 20 feet higher. Any ideas for an antenna that would take optimal advantage of the new roof? Should I run ground cables from the roof to the actual ground? Or would this draw lightning to my roof? Or would it bleed off the charge and prevent lightning to my roof? My house is on the TOP of the highest point on the GultCoast of the US (43' above sea level on a "salt washed bluff") Any suggestions for an antenna that would make use of the local environment would be greatly appreciated. On Fri, Nov 6, 2015 at 10:10 AM, John Coleman wrote: > > I haven't seen any post about an end fed zep vertical. I recall that Don, > K4KYV, used an end fed wire while he was in Houston and it worked quite > well. I see no reason the same thing couldn't be done verticaly. as a > matter of fact I have used a vertical 40 meter J-POLE (but just made of > wire > and supported by ballons) at a field day a long time ago. It was > wonderful. > I may be mistaken here but I think many AM broadcast station use insulated > half wave verticals and with a tuner at the base to provide voltage feed > instead of current feed. Of course an 80 mtr version may not be feesable > but a 40 mtr version whoould work for a lot of folks. > > John, WA5BXO > > > ______________________________________________________________ > Our Main Website: http://www.amfone.net > AMRadio mailing list > Archives: http://mailman.qth.net/pipermail/amradio/ > List Rules (must read!): http://w5ami.net/amradiofaq.html > List Home: http://mailman.qth.net/mailman/listinfo/amradio > Post: AMRadio at mailman.qth.net > To unsubscribe, send an email to amradio-request at mailman.qth.net with > the word unsubscribe in the message body. > > This list hosted by: http://www.qsl.net > Please help support this email list: http://www.qsl.net/donate.html > Message delivered to jim.isbell at gmail.com > From ranchorobbo at gmail.com Fri Nov 6 11:57:25 2015 From: ranchorobbo at gmail.com (Rob Atkinson) Date: Fri, 6 Nov 2015 10:57:25 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Vertical antennas In-Reply-To: <007301d118ad$b33fd990$19bf8cb0$@pctechref.com> References: <000901d1135e$5a6ef610$0f4ce230$@charter.net> <007301d118ad$b33fd990$19bf8cb0$@pctechref.com> Message-ID: Class A AM bc stations use 190 degree towers, voltage fed at the base, but with a ground system and copper mesh screen in the immediate vicinity of the tower base pier. You have to employ a ground system with a base fed ground mounted tower regardless of its length, if you want to minimize ground loss. Rob K5UJ On Fri, Nov 6, 2015 at 10:10 AM, John Coleman wrote: > > I haven't seen any post about an end fed zep vertical. I recall that Don, > K4KYV, used an end fed wire while he was in Houston and it worked quite > well. I see no reason the same thing couldn't be done verticaly. as a > matter of fact I have used a vertical 40 meter J-POLE (but just made of wire > and supported by ballons) at a field day a long time ago. It was wonderful. > I may be mistaken here but I think many AM broadcast station use insulated > half wave verticals and with a tuner at the base to provide voltage feed > instead of current feed. Of course an 80 mtr version may not be feesable > but a 40 mtr version whoould work for a lot of folks. > > John, WA5BXO From jc at pctechref.com Fri Nov 6 14:24:19 2015 From: jc at pctechref.com (John Coleman) Date: Fri, 6 Nov 2015 13:24:19 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Vertical antennas In-Reply-To: References: <000901d1135e$5a6ef610$0f4ce230$@charter.net> <007301d118ad$b33fd990$19bf8cb0$@pctechref.com> Message-ID: <007e01d118c8$bbe2bde0$33a839a0$@pctechref.com> Well I am not an expert on this type of thing but if I was going to use the roof as a counterpois / ground plane I would tie all the metal sheets together electricly with wire straps. The more the better. Bad connections could cause a lot of arcing that may not even be visable but could cause a lot of harmful harmonic noise, not to mention loss of radiation power. It may be more trouble than it is worth! 20 ft above the roof is not very high for 7 mhz and lower. As for as grounding the roof for lighting, I just don't know. I have read that lighting rods with pointed ends do acutally work, as for as bleeding off static build up, but I think they have things called brushes with lots of wire (like a wire brush that is install at tower tops and heavy cable run down to the earth that is said to work better. ??? Any way, my thought is to add more tower hight and run dipoles. John, WA5BXO -----Original Message----- From: AMRadio [mailto:amradio-bounces at mailman.qth.net] On Behalf Of Jim Isbell, W5JAI On the subject of Verticals, I have just completed a new "tin" roof on my house. About 3000 sq feet of ground plane...... I am wanting to operate 0n 20 and 40 meters. I have two towers, one on either end of the ridge pole and about 20 feet higher. Any ideas for an antenna that would take optimal advantage of the new roof? Should I run ground cables from the roof to the actual ground? Or would this draw lightning to my roof? Or would it bleed off the charge and prevent lightning to my roof? My house is on the TOP of the highest point on the GultCoast of the US (43' above sea level on a "salt washed bluff") Any suggestions for an antenna that would make use of the local environment would be greatly appreciated. On Fri, Nov 6, 2015 at 10:10 AM, John Coleman wrote: > > I haven't seen any post about an end fed zep vertical. I recall that Don, > K4KYV, used an end fed wire while he was in Houston and it worked > quite well. I see no reason the same thing couldn't be done > verticaly. as a matter of fact I have used a vertical 40 meter J-POLE > (but just made of wire and supported by ballons) at a field day a long > time ago. It was wonderful. > I may be mistaken here but I think many AM broadcast station use > insulated half wave verticals and with a tuner at the base to provide voltage feed > instead of current feed. Of course an 80 mtr version may not be feesable > but a 40 mtr version whoould work for a lot of folks. > > John, WA5BXO > From kenw8ek at gmail.com Sat Nov 7 12:02:25 2015 From: kenw8ek at gmail.com (Ken, W8EK) Date: Sat, 7 Nov 2015 12:02:25 -0500 Subject: [AMRadio] Icom items FS Message-ID: <563E2EA1.7020403@gmail.com> Icom and related items For Sale -- Microphones, 2 meter HT, Speaker / Phone Patch, Power Cable, Many HT Accessories including batteries, Original Boxes, Cable, Speaker Microphones, Communications Speakers, Manuals, and other Miscellaneous Items ICOM HM-133 V Remote Control DTMF Microphone: This mic has a DTMF Touch Tone pad on it, but also offers full remote control including VFO select, Up-Down tuning and memory select. It also has keypad back lighting. It has an 8 pin modular plug and is used with the IC-2100, IC-2200, IC-2300, IC-2725, IC-V8000, and others. This one appears to be new, unused, still in its original plastic bag. With paper work for $40. Icom HM-36 Hand Microphone "Made in Japan": The Icom HM-36 is used on most of the Icom HF rigs. It has a round 8 pin plug, making it compatible with almost any of the Icom rigs with this connector. This includes the IC-746 and 756 series, IC-718, IC-7600, IC-7200, IC-775, plus many more, including VHF rigs like the IC-28, IC-229, IC-3200 and many others. It also has up / down buttons on the top for changing the frequency. This one works 100% and appears to be new. It is still in its original box, and marked "Made in Japan". $35 Several Speaker Microphones: All of these speaker mics have the 3.5 mm and 2.5 mm two conductor plugs that are spaced about 3/8 inch apart, and are molded into a single connector. They are used on Icom, Yaesu, Radio Shack, Maxon, Ritron, Vertex and many other radios. Premier SPM-100 It is a lightweight and compact unit, featuring a powerful speaker as well as a high-quality condenser-style microphone element that produces excellent transmitted audio clarity. The microphone may be secured to the user's lapel or shoulder. It also features a built-in 3.5mm jack for using an external earphone. $18 DM-100 Appears to be the same as the SPM-100 above, but just with a different label. $18 IC-2 SRA, 2 meter HT and accessories: IC-2 SRA, with belt clip, wrist strap, BOTH rubber ducks (the regular 2 meter BNC one, and the special 440 MHz receive one), pocket guides ("cheat sheets"), W & W Assoc 12 Volt 600 mahr NiCad battery, 12 V 1 amp wall wart, and manual. The above HT looks good, and works great if powered thru the top of the HT. It does not power up from battery, even with new batteries. It must be something very minor. $75 W & W 7.2 Volt 2500 NiMH battery for IC-2 SRA, new, not used, $40 Batteries America, BP-83 H, 7.2 V, 1100 mahr NiMH battery for IC-2 SRA, new, not used, $30 Additional W & W 12 Volt 600 mahr NiCad, condition unknown, $5 Icom BC-72 desk charger, $30 Buy ALL of the above for $150. Icom Speaker / Phone Patch Although a phone patch is included, this is also a very nice speaker with Icom styling. This one works fine and looks great. $65 Communications Speakers: Realistic 21-549 A This speaker is about 4 inches square and about 2 inches deep. It is rated for 5 watts, has an 8 ohm impedance, and is listed as a 300 to 3000 Hz frequency response, making it ideal for communications. It has a 3.5 mm (1/8 inch) mono plug, as used by most modern rigs. Gimbal mount included. It is black in color, looks great, and sounds great. $12 Vanco SPB-5 Appears to be the same at above, but with a Vanco label. Also includes gimbal mount. $12 Vanco SPB-6 Similar to SPB-5 above, but is considered a noise cancelling speaker. 10 Watt rating. Still in original box, new. $18 DC Power Cable This is the heavy duty power cable as used on most of the Icom HF rigs, plus also many Kenwood, Alinco, and others. It has the 6 pin molex connector, with four pins used - two for plus and two for ground. The cable may not have ever been used. It looks good, and of course works fine. $22 Extra mobile mounting bracket for IC-28 (or any rig needing a 5 1/2 inch wide bracket) $15 Accessories for Icom IC-2A, 3A, 4A, 02 A, etc. series of HTs: Icom CP-1 DC cord This cord will work with the DC-1, as a charge cord, plus many other items needing the 2.1 mm coaxial power plug. The opposite end has a cigarette lighter plug on it. $10 Belt Clip for the above HTs. Complete with hardware. $6 Batteries for Icom IC-2 AT series of HTs: These items can be used on the IC-2 A, 3 A, 4 A, 02 A, 03 A, 04A, 2G AT, 32 AT series HTs plus many others. Icom BC-25 U wall charger Standard wall charger for most of these HTs. $15 Icom BP-5 Heavy duty battery pack For rebuilding only. Battery is dead. $5 Original Boxes for Icom IC-27 mobiles and IC-V8 HT: The box for the IC-27 includes the two internal styrofoam inserts that holds the rig, the cardboard box for accessories that also acts as a spacer, and even includes the original plastic bag for the rig. It is in nice condition. $8 Original box for Icom IC-V8 HT Complete with insert. Looks like new. $8 Icom Battery Charger: Icom BC-127 A, Battery Charger for Icom IC-Q7A Dual Band HT: This charger charges two AA NiCads (or NiMH) for the IC-Q7 A Dual band HT, and Icom R-2 receiver, and probably others. This appears to be new, unused, still in its bag. Icom lists them at $21. Buy this one for $12. Icom BC-25 / Santec HT Charger Same thing, with slightly different tags. 2.1 mm coaxial power plug output, with center +. 12 V DC at 50 ma. Still in box, unused. $15 Antennas for your HT: All rubber ducks are for 2 meters, are in good condition, and are $10 each, unless stated otherwise. BNC - As used on most HTs, 7 inches long BNC - Original Alinco EA0024, about 4 inches long BNC - Original from Kenwood TH-215, about 5 inches long BNC - "Stubby" about 4 1/2 inches long Type F connector - 6.5 inches long BNC Stubby for 440 MHz, 3 inches long Threaded (as used by Motorola, etc.) stubby for 440 MHz Not a Rubber Duck, but can be used on your HT: Telescoping Antenna w/ BNC about 19 inches long can be used as a quarter wave antenna on 2 m, or on 220, or 450 MHz if telescoped shorter. $12 ORIGINAL Icom operating manuals: Please note that all of these are original Icom manuals and are not copies. All are in very good condition. These are original Icom manuals only. SPECIAL: Buy two, three, or four manuals and take 10% off. Buy five or more and take 20% off. Mobile transceiver and HT manuals: IC-2 AT, 2 meter HT, still in plastic bag, $6 IC-22 A, 2 m FM transceiver, $10 IC-22 S, 2 m FM transceiver, $12 IC-27 A/E, 2 m transceiver, still in plastic bag, $15 IC-27 H, 2 m FM transceiver, $12 IC-28 H, 2 m FM transceiver, $12 IC-290 H, 2 m FM transceiver, still in plastic bag, $15 IC-751, HF transceiver, still in plastic bag, $22 IC-820 H, good copy, not original $10 IC-3200 A/E, Dual Band FM Transceiver, $15 IC-V8, 2 meter HT, $6 Other Icom manuals: BC-30 Desk Charger, $4 BC-35 Desk Charger, $5 BP-2, BP-3, BP-4, BP-5 battery packs, $3 BP-21, BP-22, BP-23, and BP-24 Batteries, $3 DC-1 DC pack for IC-2 AT series HTs, $4 EX-310 Voice Synthesizer, $5 HM-8 Hand Microphone, w/schematic, $5 HM-10 scanning microphone, $3 IC-3 PA Power supply / speaker, $10 MB-5 mobile bracket, $2 MB-65 mobile bracket mount, $2 RC-10 Frequency controller, $4 SM-5 desk microphone, $3 UT-16 Voice Synthesizer, $5 These are original Icom manuals only. I also have many other accessories available such as many different types of microphones, HTs, HF, VHF and UHF rigs, HF and VHF/UHF antennas, HF linear amplifiers, and many other accessories. Just too many to list here. Please e-mail your requests. Prices do not include shipping from Florida. Thanks. 73, Ken, W8EK Ken Simpson E-mail to W8EK at FLHam.net or W8EK at arrl.net Voice Phone (352) 732-8400 From k4kyv at charter.net Sat Nov 7 12:11:35 2015 From: k4kyv at charter.net (Donald Chester) Date: Sat, 7 Nov 2015 11:11:35 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Vertical antennas In-Reply-To: References: <000901d1135e$5a6ef610$0f4ce230$@charter.net> <007301d118ad$b33fd990$19bf8cb0$@pctechref.com> Message-ID: <003a01d1197f$5bbeb1a0$133c14e0$@charter.net> Rob K5UJ wrote: > Class A AM bc stations use 190 degree towers, voltage fed at the base, but with a ground system and copper mesh screen > in the immediate vicinity of the tower base pier. Plus a full complement of 120 or more radials. For a tower of that length, the radials are usually longer than a quarter wave. > You have to employ a ground system with a base fed ground mounted tower regardless of its length, if you want > to minimize ground loss. You can think of the ground system from two different perspectives, which both say the same thing, being merely a matter of semantics. (1) The radials provide a lower resistance path than bare earth, to return the ground current emanating from the vertical radiator back to the base of the antenna. Ground currents result from displacement currents flowing through free space from the radiating antenna to the earth, which then return back to the base of the antenna to complete the circuit. The sum of the resistances seen by the displacement currents is the radiation resistance, and this "lost" energy is radiated into space as a radio wave. The lost energy from ground resistance is lost as heat. About all it does is to help keep the earthworms warm. The radials and ground screen act as a low-resistance shunt across the return path through the lossy earth. (2) You could think of the ground system as a conductive shield that isolates the radiating element from the lossy earth. If the radials are buried or laid on top of the ground, many radial wires are needed due to the close proximity of the soil. As the shield (ground plane) is raised away from the earth, fewer radials are needed, hence elevated radial systems are said to be equally efficient while employing fewer radials. VHF and CB ground planes, for example, may have radial systems one or more wavelengths high, and a fully efficient ground plane at that height usually consists of only three or four radials. Hams often confuse the above function of the radial system with an equally important function with a vertical that is considerably shorter than 180 degrees: to complete the missing portion of the half-wave radiator, allowing it to be self-resonant. A half wave vertical is inherently self-resonant and zepp feeders could be used, but still, without a ground system, much of the rf is wasted as earth loss in the vicinity of the base of the antenna, unless the whole thing is raised well above ground. OTOH, a quarter-wave monopole cannot be self-resonant due to the missing other quarter wave. The ground plane provides that missing quarter wave, something for the quarter-wave monopole to be current-fed against. With a perfectly lossless ground system, the theoretical base impedance is 36 ohms, exactly half the feed point impedance of a dipole in space, 72 ohms. Elevated radials are more effective when cut to resonant length, usually a quarter wave. Radials on the ground or buried do not need to be any particular resonant length. The optimum number and length of the radials in the system are a whole other topic of study. A half-wave vertical high in the air works almost the same as a quarter wave ground plane at the same height. The bottom quarter wave (bottom half of the antenna) functions just like quarter-wave ground plane radials as far as resonance is concerned. But there is a difference. If the radials extend horizontally, symmetrically in all directions, their radiations cancel out, just like the wires in a capacity hat of a top-loaded vertical or vertical tee. Therefore, the base impedance of the elevated ground plane is 36 ohms, but if the radials were all bent down vertically into a single bundle, they would become the other half of a radiating half-wave dipole, and the feed point impedance would increase to 72 ohms. The radials can be sloped down at an intermediate angle between 90 and 180 degrees to make a convenient feed point impedance between the two extremes, 50 ohms for example. Here are a couple of interesting pages on the topic (you may have to copy and paste the full link into your browser, since the reflector software often truncates the URL) : http://www.comportco.com/~w5alt/antennas/notes/ant-notes.php?pg=21 http://www.w8ji.com/ground_plane_verticals.htm Don k4kyv --- This email has been checked for viruses by Avast antivirus software. https://www.avast.com/antivirus From k5xu at comcast.net Thu Nov 12 20:41:56 2015 From: k5xu at comcast.net (Mike Duke, K5XU) Date: Thu, 12 Nov 2015 20:41:56 -0500 Subject: [AMRadio] 40 and 80 meters are very long tonight Message-ID: <5da384a0.0a42.4c74.99f6.136d4500369a@samobile.net> I cannot hear WWV on 10 MHZ at my Mississippi QTH, and signals from within 200 miles have disappeared on 75 meters. There is also an intruder signing as 4XZ transmitting code and number groups on 7.050 CW at about 25 WPM. Someone on another list said that station is a 100 KW transmitter coming from Israel. Wherever he is, and whatever power he's running, he's a solid 579 at my house with very little fading. This night may be showing possibility for some unusually long distant contacts on the lower bands. -- Mike Duke, K5XU From ranchorobbo at gmail.com Thu Nov 12 21:00:47 2015 From: ranchorobbo at gmail.com (Rob Atkinson) Date: Thu, 12 Nov 2015 20:00:47 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] 40 and 80 meters are very long tonight In-Reply-To: <5da384a0.0a42.4c74.99f6.136d4500369a@samobile.net> References: <5da384a0.0a42.4c74.99f6.136d4500369a@samobile.net> Message-ID: This is something we've been noticing for a couple weeks or more, those of us who operate 160 m. I don't know the reason why, but usually this time of year 160 stinks for QSOs until at least 9 p.m. local time when it is barely okay. Prior to that time it is only good for close in QSOs, maybe 100 miles. But lately, 160 has been allowing solid QSOs 300 or 400 miles out starting around 7 p.m. local time, as if it is mid-January. The level of activity there is up from the past few years and it has been great. I was starting to become discouraged thinking many AM operators had abandoned 160 but not anymore. 73 Rob K5UJ On Thu, Nov 12, 2015 at 7:41 PM, Mike Duke, K5XU wrote: > > > I cannot hear WWV on 10 MHZ at my Mississippi QTH, and signals from within > 200 miles have disappeared on 75 meters. > > There is also an intruder signing as 4XZ transmitting code and number groups > on 7.050 CW at about 25 WPM. > > Someone on another list said that station is a 100 KW transmitter coming > from Israel. > > Wherever he is, and whatever power he's running, he's a solid 579 at my > house with very little fading. > > This night may be showing possibility for some unusually long distant > contacts on the lower bands. > > -- > Mike Duke, K5XU > ______________________________________________________________ > Our Main Website: http://www.amfone.net > AMRadio mailing list > Archives: http://mailman.qth.net/pipermail/amradio/ > List Rules (must read!): http://w5ami.net/amradiofaq.html > List Home: http://mailman.qth.net/mailman/listinfo/amradio > Post: AMRadio at mailman.qth.net > To unsubscribe, send an email to amradio-request at mailman.qth.net with > the word unsubscribe in the message body. > > This list hosted by: http://www.qsl.net > Please help support this email list: http://www.qsl.net/donate.html > Message delivered to ranchorobbo at gmail.com From w5jo at brightok.net Wed Nov 18 16:01:44 2015 From: w5jo at brightok.net (w5jo at brightok.net) Date: Wed, 18 Nov 2015 15:01:44 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Radio Shack Message-ID: <2DA54DCB83B04817AB609A83F2418CE0@JimPC> Today I visited the local store that was formally a Radio Shack franchisee to buy some connectors from remaining stock. I have know these people for quite a while and been buying what I can from them to keep the small parts available. When one of the owners totaled the amount she told me that they were giving 20% off of all stock that was branded Radio Shack in order to clear their shelves of the products. I asked if this meant that the things I buy will no longer be available. The answer really surprised me. It seems as if Radio Shack of Mexico operates under a different name and has approached the local franchisee to see if they wish to affiliate with the Mexican Company. I didn?t pay attention to the name so cannot pass that along, but they already have some products on their shelves branded with the name of the new line. It appears that the Mexican operation was not affected by the bankruptcy of Radio Shack and they offer the same products and the prices are much better according to the local store owner. There are other aspects of this that will help save the local store involving cell telephones, but that is beside the point. This local franchisee is interested in providing the electrical and electronic parts because they have purchasers who drive from 40-50 miles to buy capacitors, connectors, diodes, etc. Most of the purchasers are technicians who repair equipment on site and need the parts to finish their jobs. So in this case it seems as if this will be a boon to some of the former Radio Shack stores and will keep them open to furnish parts to those of us who sometimes need them immediately. Jim W5JO From manualman at juno.com Wed Nov 18 16:34:09 2015 From: manualman at juno.com (manualman at juno.com) Date: Wed, 18 Nov 2015 16:34:09 -0500 Subject: [AMRadio] Radio Shack Message-ID: This part of the business happened back in March 2015: Watch for wrap-around to the second line. http://www.wsj.com/articles/grupo-gigante-to-buy-radioshacks-mexican-busi ness-1427497231 or Google radio shack of mexico oe maybe it's really here: http://www.stores-locator.com/04257-mexico/radioshack-51422.html Pete, wa2cwa On Wed, 18 Nov 2015 15:01:44 -0600 writes: > Today I visited the local store that was formally a Radio Shack > franchisee to buy some connectors from remaining stock. I have know > these people for quite a while and been buying what I can from them > to keep the small parts available. > > When one of the owners totaled the amount she told me that they were > giving 20% off of all stock that was branded Radio Shack in order to > clear their shelves of the products. I asked if this meant that the > things I buy will no longer be available. The answer really > surprised me. > > It seems as if Radio Shack of Mexico operates under a different name > and has approached the local franchisee to see if they wish to > affiliate with the Mexican Company. I didn?t pay attention to the > name so cannot pass that along, but they already have some products > on their shelves branded with the name of the new line. It appears > that the Mexican operation was not affected by the bankruptcy of > Radio Shack and they offer the same products and the prices are much > better according to the local store owner. > > There are other aspects of this that will help save the local store > involving cell telephones, but that is beside the point. This local > franchisee is interested in providing the electrical and electronic > parts because they have purchasers who drive from 40-50 miles to buy > capacitors, connectors, diodes, etc. Most of the purchasers are > technicians who repair equipment on site and need the parts to > finish their jobs. > > So in this case it seems as if this will be a boon to some of the > former Radio Shack stores and will keep them open to furnish parts > to those of us who sometimes need them immediately. > > Jim > W5JO From nq5t at tx.rr.com Wed Nov 18 16:42:12 2015 From: nq5t at tx.rr.com (GRANT YOUNGMAN) Date: Wed, 18 Nov 2015 15:42:12 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Radio Shack In-Reply-To: <2DA54DCB83B04817AB609A83F2418CE0@JimPC> References: <2DA54DCB83B04817AB609A83F2418CE0@JimPC> Message-ID: Interesting. I was in my local RatShack a few days ago looking for connectors. The interior of the store had been considerably redesigned and seemed a bit more ?thin? and cellular focused than it had in the past. But ? they actually had a LARGER selection of parts (caps, Rs, connectors, switches, etc.) than they had before. I asked them if they were staying open, and the answer was a clear yes. There are other places around here for that kind of thing, but I?d sure rather drive a couple of miles than 20 when I can, and they have what I can't find in the parts bins in the middle of a Sunday afternoon project .. :-) Grant NQ5T > On Nov 18, 2015, at 3:01 PM, wrote: > > Today I visited the local store that was formally a Radio Shack franchisee to buy some connectors from remaining stock. I have know these people for quite a while and been buying what I can from them to keep the small parts available. > > When one of the owners totaled the amount she told me that they were giving 20% off of all stock that was branded Radio Shack in order to clear their shelves of the products. I asked if this meant that the things I buy will no longer be available. The answer really surprised me. > > It seems as if Radio Shack of Mexico operates under a different name and has approached the local franchisee to see if they wish to affiliate with the Mexican Company. I didn?t pay attention to the name so cannot pass that along, but they already have some products on their shelves branded with the name of the new line. It appears that the Mexican operation was not affected by the bankruptcy of Radio Shack and they offer the same products and the prices are much better according to the local store owner. > > There are other aspects of this that will help save the local store involving cell telephones, but that is beside the point. This local franchisee is interested in providing the electrical and electronic parts because they have purchasers who drive from 40-50 miles to buy capacitors, connectors, diodes, etc. Most of the purchasers are technicians who repair equipment on site and need the parts to finish their jobs. > > So in this case it seems as if this will be a boon to some of the former Radio Shack stores and will keep them open to furnish parts to those of us who sometimes need them immediately. > > Jim > W5JO > ______________________________________________________________ From w5jo at brightok.net Wed Nov 18 17:07:33 2015 From: w5jo at brightok.net (w5jo at brightok.net) Date: Wed, 18 Nov 2015 16:07:33 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Radio Shack In-Reply-To: References: Message-ID: <7A4B21CC546A42F391BA4F2932BCD803@JimPC> I don't have a subscription to the WSJ so could not look at the remainder of the story not did I do a search for the name . The part of the WSJ article I could see gave the name of the conglomerate that purchased the business but not the brand name that will appear on the parts. Locally the store carries the tips for the low and high powered Weller soldering guns, which I use a lot outside and the Their prices beat places like Digi-Key or Mouser. Since the owners are personal friends I am glad they will remain in business. I just hate the fact that the company had to go away under the Radio Shack name. That name had been a part of electronics in this country for a very long time. Jim W5JO -----Original Message----- This part of the business happened back in March 2015: Watch for wrap-around to the second line. http://www.wsj.com/articles/grupo-gigante-to-buy-radioshacks-mexican-busi ness-1427497231 or Google radio shack of mexico oe maybe it's really here: http://www.stores-locator.com/04257-mexico/radioshack-51422.html Pete, wa2cwa From ranchorobbo at gmail.com Wed Nov 18 20:31:31 2015 From: ranchorobbo at gmail.com (Rob Atkinson) Date: Wed, 18 Nov 2015 19:31:31 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Radio Shack In-Reply-To: <7A4B21CC546A42F391BA4F2932BCD803@JimPC> References: <7A4B21CC546A42F391BA4F2932BCD803@JimPC> Message-ID: It's true that Radio Shack has been an aid to many broadcast techs working in the field in rural and small markets. They have these parts drawers full of things that may not be up there with Amphenol or EFJ quality but work in a pinch. I remember a few years ago I needed a micro sized toggle switch to perform a mod to my Sherwood SE3. I tried all the stores around there that might have such a thing and finally went to R.S. as a last resort and they had the switch. I was pleasantly surprised and could finish the modification that evening when I had the free time. I made a note to try them sooner rather than later in the future. Sadly, the R.S. stores most convenient to me here are gone but there are two still open that are a bit farther away. I didn't know about the Mexico connection. That was news to me. 73 Rob K5UJ On Wed, Nov 18, 2015 at 4:07 PM, wrote: > I don't have a subscription to the WSJ so could not look at the remainder of > the story not did I do a search for the name . The part of the WSJ article > I could see gave the name of the conglomerate that purchased the business > but not the brand name that will appear on the parts. > > Locally the store carries the tips for the low and high powered Weller > soldering guns, which I use a lot outside and the Their prices beat places > like Digi-Key or Mouser. Since the owners are personal friends I am glad > they will remain in business. I just hate the fact that the company had to > go away under the Radio Shack name. That name had been a part of > electronics in this country for a very long time. > > Jim > W5JO From kenw8ek at gmail.com Wed Nov 25 10:00:58 2015 From: kenw8ek at gmail.com (Ken, W8EK) Date: Wed, 25 Nov 2015 10:00:58 -0500 Subject: [AMRadio] High Power Antenna Tuners FS Message-ID: <5655CD2A.2060401@gmail.com> Two high power, full legal limit, antenna tuners For Sale: AEA AT-3000 High Power HF Antenna Tuner: The AEA AT-3000 is an extremely rugged antenna tuner, rated to handle 3000 watts. It will certainly easily handle the full legal limit. The AT-3000 has two variable inductors and a single large variable capacitor. It also has an antenna switch that will switch between two coax antennas, a balanced antenna (it includes a VERY large built in balun), and dummy load. There is also a cross needle meter that reads forward and reverse power, and hence SWR, all simultaneously. It also has a back light, if 12 V is applied. Instead of the normal high and low power ranges, this tuner has three ranges of 3000 W, 300 W, and 30 W full scale. It also reads both average and peak power. This is an exceptional tuner! This particular unit works 100% and looks like it just came from the factory. No scratches or defects. Pristine! With paper work for $325. TenTec 229 B HF antenna tuner: This roller inductor tuner will handle full legal power. It uses an "L" match instead of a "T" match, which means there is only one spot that will give the correct match. The "L" match is also more efficient. Electrically, it is the same as both the 229 series and 238 series. There is also a built in wattmeter with full scale reading of 200 and 2000 watts. It also has an SWR bridge with lighted meter, plus a 4 position antenna switch. It can be used on any HF frequency, including the WARC bands, as it is continuously adjustable. It has a built in internal balun, so open wire can be used. Cosmetically, this unit is the color of the Corsair I with a sort of very dark chocolate brown (almost black) color, although it certainly can be used with any HF rig or legal limit amplifier. This unit has had the problematic dial and elastic cord changed to a turns counter for better reliability. This particular unit functions 100%, and looks great. I can not find a scratch on it. Paper work is included for $300. I also have many other accessories of many different brands available. Just too many to list here. Please e-mail your requests. Prices do not include shipping from Florida. Thanks. 73, Ken, W8EK Ken Simpson E-mail to W8EK at FLHam.net or W8EK at arrl.net Voice Phone (352) 732-8400 From mjcal77 at yahoo.com Wed Nov 25 17:24:19 2015 From: mjcal77 at yahoo.com (CL in NC) Date: Wed, 25 Nov 2015 22:24:19 +0000 (UTC) Subject: [AMRadio] Insight needed References: <2082830634.10919128.1448490259809.JavaMail.yahoo.ref@mail.yahoo.com> Message-ID: <2082830634.10919128.1448490259809.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> I know somebody is going to say, go the the CCA and ask this, but, I'm sure somebody here knows. I was watching a COLLINS S-LIine PS in the speaker cabinet, a 516F2 and it sold for $1295 on Ebay. It wasn't perfect or factory NOS. Is this normal, or did somebody really want it? Charlie, W4MEC in NC From ranchorobbo at gmail.com Wed Nov 25 19:30:33 2015 From: ranchorobbo at gmail.com (Rob Atkinson) Date: Wed, 25 Nov 2015 18:30:33 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Insight needed In-Reply-To: <2082830634.10919128.1448490259809.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> References: <2082830634.10919128.1448490259809.JavaMail.yahoo.ref@mail.yahoo.com> <2082830634.10919128.1448490259809.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> Message-ID: It's known as Collins Slopbucket-Line-phoolery. 73 Rob K5UJ On Wed, Nov 25, 2015 at 4:24 PM, CL in NC via AMRadio wrote: > I know somebody is going to say, go the the CCA and ask this, but, I'm sure somebody here knows. I was watching a > COLLINS S-LIine PS in the speaker cabinet, a 516F2 and it sold for $1295 on Ebay. It wasn't perfect or factory NOS. Is this normal, or did somebody really want it? From mjcal77 at yahoo.com Sun Nov 29 14:31:42 2015 From: mjcal77 at yahoo.com (CL in NC) Date: Sun, 29 Nov 2015 19:31:42 +0000 (UTC) Subject: [AMRadio] Auto transformer to reduce line volts References: <1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo.ref@mail.yahoo.com> Message-ID: <1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> I know some folks use and auto xfmr to lower their line to the older gear. Do you split the difference between what the transformer gives when in receive and what it loads down to while transmitting? My only auto transformer I use on the bench, but in my catch all loft, I found an 1800 watt Luxtrol incandescent lamp controller that will also do up to 50 40 watt florescent lamps too. At first I thought it was a big rheostat, but is actually an auto transformer. It does say 1800 watts of regular bulbs, but since it also handles florescents, how do you think it would work feeding ham gear, if at all? Charlie, W4MEC in NC From k9fh at arrl.net Sun Nov 29 15:11:48 2015 From: k9fh at arrl.net (K9FH) Date: Sun, 29 Nov 2015 14:11:48 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Auto transformer to reduce line volts In-Reply-To: <1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> References: <1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo.ref@mail.yahoo.com> <1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> Message-ID: <565B5C04.7010409@arrl.net> On 11/29/2015 1:31 PM, CL in NC via AMRadio wrote: > I know some folks use and auto xfmr to lower their line to the older gear. Do you split the difference between what > the transformer gives when in receive and what it loads down to while transmitting? Folks might use a variac to lower their line voltage since the line voltage normally supplied to homes has crept up through the years. Hopefully most equipment can tolerate a slightly increased line voltage without resorting to using a variac. But the increased line voltage might also adversely affect tube life due to the corresponding increase in filament voltages. So lower the line voltage to the older standard of 115 or 117 volts. You want to prevent excessive filament voltage at all times so adjust during receive and hope the line voltage is stiff enough that any voltage drop during transmit is insignificant. My opinion could be wrong and careless but I don't normally use a variac in the operation of equipment. It's only used during testing. > My only auto transformer I use on the > bench, but in my catch all loft, I found an 1800 watt Luxtrol incandescent lamp controller that will also do up to 50 40 watt florescent lamps too. > At first I thought it was a big rheostat, but is actually an auto transformer. It does say 1800 watts of regular bulbs, but since it > also handles florescents, how do you think it would work feeding ham gear, if at all? Just make sure that it actually is an autotransformer and not an SCR controller. If in doubt, look at waveform on a scope being careful of isolating the scope chassis from power ground in some way. Phil - K9FH From ranchorobbo at gmail.com Sun Nov 29 15:14:07 2015 From: ranchorobbo at gmail.com (Rob Atkinson) Date: Sun, 29 Nov 2015 14:14:07 -0600 Subject: [AMRadio] Auto transformer to reduce line volts In-Reply-To: <1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> References: <1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo.ref@mail.yahoo.com> <1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> Message-ID: I can't comment on gas tube lamps because they take a h.v. transformer to fire them, but watts is watts so if your transformer is rated for 1800 watts then that's 1.8 KVA and you should be able to use it with loads that draw that much power or less. rob k5uj On Sun, Nov 29, 2015 at 1:31 PM, CL in NC via AMRadio wrote: > I know some folks use and auto xfmr to lower their line to the older gear. Do you split the difference between what > the transformer gives when in receive and what it loads down to while transmitting? My only auto transformer I use on the > bench, but in my catch all loft, I found an 1800 watt Luxtrol incandescent lamp controller that will also do up to 50 40 watt florescent lamps too. > At first I thought it was a big rheostat, but is actually an auto transformer. It does say 1800 watts of regular bulbs, but since it > also handles florescents, how do you think it would work feeding ham gear, if at all? From macklinbob at gmail.com Sun Nov 29 15:28:46 2015 From: macklinbob at gmail.com (K5MYJ) Date: Sun, 29 Nov 2015 12:28:46 -0800 Subject: [AMRadio] Auto transformer to reduce line volts References: <1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo.ref@mail.yahoo.com><1172775112.12810026.1448825502056.JavaMail.yahoo@mail.yahoo.com> Message-ID: <10DB747C8C3543A7BAF021617097B63C@IVORYTOWER> You can use a filament transformer in bucking mode to lower your effective line voltage. 120VAC - 6.3VAC = 113.7, That's just an example. Bob Macklin K5MYJ Seattle, Wa. "Real Radios Glow In The Dark" ----- Original Message ----- From: "Rob Atkinson" To: "CL in NC" Cc: "Discussion of AM Radio in the Amateur Service" Sent: Sunday, November 29, 2015 12:14 PM Subject: Re: [AMRadio] Auto transformer to reduce line volts >I can't comment on gas tube lamps because they take a h.v. transformer > to fire them, but watts is watts so if your transformer is rated for > 1800 watts then that's 1.8 KVA and you should be able to use it with > loads that draw that much power or less. > > rob > k5uj > > On Sun, Nov 29, 2015 at 1:31 PM, CL in NC via AMRadio > wrote: >> I know some folks use and auto xfmr to lower their line to the older >> gear. Do you split the difference between what >> the transformer gives when in receive and what it loads down to while >> transmitting? My only auto transformer I use on the >> bench, but in my catch all loft, I found an 1800 watt Luxtrol >> incandescent lamp controller that will also do up to 50 40 watt >> florescent lamps too. >> At first I thought it was a big rheostat, but is actually an auto >> transformer. It does say 1800 watts of regular bulbs, but since it >> also handles florescents, how do you think it would work feeding ham >> gear, if at all? > ______________________________________________________________ > Our Main Website: http://www.amfone.net > AMRadio mailing list > Archives: http://mailman.qth.net/pipermail/amradio/ > List Rules (must read!): http://w5ami.net/amradiofaq.html > List Home: http://mailman.qth.net/mailman/listinfo/amradio > Post: AMRadio at mailman.qth.net > To unsubscribe, send an email to amradio-request at mailman.qth.net with > the word unsubscribe in the message body. > > This list hosted by: http://www.qsl.net > Please help support this email list: http://www.qsl.net/donate.html > Message delivered to macklinbob at gmail.com

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